Useful resources

We recommend the following general resources for guidance on refining aspects of macaque care and use, as well as environmental enrichment and welfare assessment.


NC3Rs (2017) Primate Accommodation, Care and Use

Handbook of primate husbandry and welfare

Wolfensohn S, Honess P (2005) Handbook of Primate Husbandry and Welfare


McCann C et al. (2007)
IPS International Guidelines for the Acquisition, Care and Breeding of Non-Human Primates, 2nd Edn.


Chapman K et al. (2014) Opportunities for implementing the 3Rs in drug development and safety assessment studies using nonhuman primates


Jennings M, Prescott MJ, Eds. (2009) Refinements in husbandry, care and common procedures for non-human primates Lab. Anim43(1) 1-47

BPRC manual

Vernes MK, Louwerse AL, Eds. (2010) BPRC’s Enrichment Manual for Macaques and Marmosets



Animal Welfare Institute Database Environmental Enrichment and Refinement of Husbandry for Nonhuman Primates

UFAW Handbook

Hubrecht RC, Kirkwood J, Eds. (2010) The UFAW Handbook on the Care and Management of Laboratory and Other Research Animals, 8th Edn,


Prescott MJ, Buchanan-Smith HM, Eds. (2003) Training Nonhuman Primates Using Positive Reinforcement Techniques JAAWS 6(3)

NRC psychological wellbeing

National Research Council (1998) The Psychological Well-being of Nonhuman Primates


Scientific Committee on Animal Health and Welfare (2002) The Welfare of Non-Human Primates Used in Research


NIH Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare (2005) Enrichment for Nonhuman Primates

Animal Welfare bookAppleby et al. (2011) Animal Welfare EE YoungYoung (2003) Environmental Enrichment for Captive Animals Weizmann docWeizmann Institute (2016) Enrichment and Welfare for Long-Tailed Macaques (Macaca fascicularis)

Schapiro (2017) Handbook of Primate Behavioral Management

Macaque on swing

Peploe et al. (2021) Laboratory Primate Enrichment Ideas




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